Climb the notable peaks of Himalayas outlined on the map of Himalayas
The Himalayan range cover approximately 612021 sq. km passing through Nepal, Bhutan and India, so have ample opportunities to explore diversity of region and different culture.
Himalayas mountains range is one of the youngest
mountain ranges in the world. Its revolution can be traced to the
Jurassic Era (80 million years ago) when the worlds landmasses
were split into two: Laurasia in the Northern hemisphere, and
Gondwanaland in the southern hemisphere. The landmass which is now India
broke away from Gondwanaland and floated across the earths surface
until it collided with asia. The hard volcanic rocks of India were
thrust against the soft sedimentary crust of Asia, creating the highest
mountain range in the world.
Main Himalaya Mountains Range
This is the principal mountain range
dividing the Indian subcontinent from Nanga Parbat in the west, the
range stretches for over 2,000-km to the mountains bordering Sikkim and
Bhutan in the east.
west Himalaya is the part of this range that divides Kashmir and
Himachal Pradesh from Ladakh. The highest mountains here are Nun and
Kun. In Kashmir the subsidiary ridges of the Himalaya include the North
Sonarmarg, Kolahoi and Amarnath ranges.
Further east, the Himalaya extends across to the Baralacha range in
Himachal Pradesh before merging with the Parbati range to the east of
the Kullu valley. It then extends across kinnaur Kailas to the
swargarohini and Bandarpunch ranges in Uttaranchal. Further east it is
defined by the snow capped range North of the Gangotri glacier and by
the huge peaks in the vicinity of Nanda Devi, the highest mountain in
the Indian Himalaya. In Western Nepal the range is equally prominent
across the Annapurna and Dhaulagiri massifs, while in Eastern Nepal the
main ridgeline frequently coincides with the political boundary between
Nepal and Tibet.
The leading Ranges of Himalaya
Some of the most popular Himalayan mountain ranges are:
Pir Panjal Range
The Pir Panjal Range lies south of the main
Himalaya at an average elevation of 5,000m. From Gulmarg in the North
west it follows the southern rim of the Kashmir valley to the Banihal
pass. Here the Pir Panjal meets the ridgeline separating the Kashmir
valley from the Warvan valley. From Banihal the Pir Panjal sweeps
south-east to Kishtwar, where the combined waters of the Warvan and
Chandra Rivers meet to form the Chenab River, one of the main
tributaries of the Indus.
Dhaula Dhar Range
The Dhaula Dhar range lies to the south of
the Pir Panjal. It is easily recognised as the snow-capped ridge behind
Dharamsala where it forms the divide between the Ravi and the Beas
valleys. To the west it provides the divide between the Chenab valley
below Kishtwar and the Tawi valley which twists south to Jammu. This is
the range crossed at Patnitop on the Jammu-Srinagar highway. To the east
it extends across Himachal Pradesh forming the high ridges of the Largi
gorge and extending south of the Pin Parvati valley before forming the
impressive ridgeline east of the Sutlej River. Thereon it forms the snow
capped divide between the Sangla valley and upper tons catchment area in
Uttaranchal, including the Har Ki Dun Valley. Beyond the Bhagirathi
River it forms the range between Gangotri and Kedarnath before merging
with the main Himalaya at the head of the Gangotri glacier.
There are many attractive trekking pases over the Dhaula Dhar. These
include the Indrahar Pass North of Dharamsala: and in Kinnaur, the
Borasu pass linking the Sangla valley to Har-ki-Dun in Uttaranchal.
The Siwalik Hills, also known as Shiwalik Hills,
lie to the south of the Dhaula Dhar, with an average elevation of 1,500
to 2,000m. They are the first range of hills encountered en route from
the plains and are geologically separate from the Himalaya. They include
the Jammu hills and Vaishno Devi, and extend to Kangra and further east
to the range south of Mandi. In Uttaranchal , they extend from Dehra Dun
to Almora before heading across the southern borders of Nepal. Most of
the range is crossed by a network of roads, linking the Northern Indian
plains with Kangra, the Kullu valley, Shimla and Dehradun.
The Zanskar range, one of the renowned Himalaya mountain ranges lies to the North of the main
Himalaya. It forms the backbone of Ladakh south of the Indus River,
stretching from the ridges beyond Lamayuru in the west across the
Zanskar region, where it is divided from the main Himalaya by the Stod
and Tsarap valleys, the populated districts of the Zanskar valley. The
Zanskar range is breached where the Zanskar River flows North, creating
awesome gorges until it reaches the Indus River just below Leh.
To the east of the Zanskar region the range continues through Lahaul &
Spiti, providing a complex buffer zone between the main Himalaya and the
Tibetan plateau. It continues across the North of Kinnaur before
extending west across Uttaranchal, where it again forms the intermediary
range between the Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau, which includes
Kamet, the second highest peak in India. The range finally peters out
North east of the Kali River - close to the border between India and
On the Zanskar range, the Fatu La, on the Leh-Srinagar road, is
considered the most easterly pass; while the Singge La, the Cha Cha La
and the Rubrang La are the main trekking passes into the Zanskar valley.
For the hardy Ladakh trader, the main route in winter between the
Zanskar valley and Leh is down the icebound Zanskar River gorges.
Further to the east, many of the Zanskar range passes to the North of
Spiti and Kinnaur are close to the India-Tibet border, and are closed to
The ladakh range lies to the North of Leh and is
an integral part of the Trans-Himalayan range that merges with the
Kailash range in Tibet. The passes include the famous Kardung La, the
highest motorable pass in the world, while the Digar La to the North
east of Leh is at present the only pass open to trekkers..
East Korakoram Range
The East Karakoram Range is the huge
range that forms the geographical divide between India and Central Asia.
It includes many high peaks including - Teram Kargri, Saltoro Kangri and
Rimo, while the Karakoram Pass was the main trading link between the
markets of Leh, Yarkand and Kashgar. At present this region is closed to
trekkers, although a few foreign mountaineering groups were permitted to
climb there in the last decade.
So explore the magic of these scrumptious mountain ranges in Himalayan mountain range.